The 235th and the 236th, the 241st, and 205th poem:
None of these poems were composed for Imperial Family in Yamato


   There are 235th and 236th poems the head of the third volume of Man'yoshu. It is said to composed for Kinki Imperial Family at Asuka in Yamato. Therefore, the general interpretation of these poems have many questions.
In addition, 205th and 241st poems have the same questions.

Fig.1. 235th and 236th poem.

235
Ohokimi wa
kami ni shi maseba
amagumo no
Ikazuchi no ue ni
ihori seru kamo


Ohokimi wa
kami nishi maseba
kumo gakuru
Ikazuchi yama ni
miyashiki imasu


235
Poems written by Kakinomoto Hitomaro at
the time of the Empress' excursion to
Ikazuchi Hill, "the hill of thunder"
Our Lord,
a very god,
builds her lodge
above the thunder
by the heavenly clouds.

A variant of the above poem has it
dedicated to Prince Osakabe. The variant reads,

236
Our Lord,
a very god,
spreads his palace precincts
on the hill of thunder,
hidden in the clouds.
(Translated by Ian Hideo Levy)
---------------------------------------------------
Fig.2., 205th poem

205
Ohokimi wa
kami ni shi maseba
amagumo no
ihohe ga shita ni
kakuritamahinu

Envoy
Our Lord,
a very god,
conceals himself
behind five hundred
folds of cloud.
---------------------------------------------------
Fig.3. 241st poem


241
Our Lord,
a very god,
constructs a sea
among the crags
where tower thick black pines.
---------------------------------------------------
    1.First, None of "Ohokimi, Great King, " is written in 235th poem of Man'yoshu with all hand-written copies. In fact, all of the old manuscripts of 235th poem is written in "Sumerogi, ." This term of "Sumerogi," means Lineal Great Deity which a individual were deified in homage after his death as the highest existence, and commonly not used to a living individual.
    The 235th poem itself is surely based on the idea that hereditary Deities repose at top of Ikazuchi mountain. It appears that the term of Ihori itself means a hermitage in which hermits live. It is thought that this poem is composed to console the depart soul for divine providence reverently. But, very little or no attention will be given to Ikazuchi hill (the hill of thunder) in Yamato. In fact, none it's top cover with clouds at Ikazuchi hill, it is a very low hill about 20 feet high. In particular, what does she build in lodge on the hill-top? We have no legend and record for it. Evidently, there is no reason to suppose that Kakinomoto Hitomaro composed to reverse poem for Empress Jito with a living individual.
    Second, Summarily none of "Ohokimi, Great King," is written in 236th poem of Man'yoshu with all hand-written copies. In fact, all of old manuscripts of 235th poem is written in "Kimi, ." This term of "Kimi, " means King which managed in a certain area. King is not as meaning as Prince.
    The 236th poem itself is surely based on the idea that King is dead, and repose at Ikazuchi mountain as the spirit of a deity.
Evidently, there is no reason to suppose that Kakinomoto Hitomaro was composed the 236th poem for Prince Osakabe too. This poem invoked the image of which if he were live, he would be in large palace.

Fig.4. Asuka map & Ikazuchi hill
Fig.5. Haniyasu pond

( It is Amakashi-no-oka hill which is 148 meters high. Obviously, It is lower Ikazuchi hill 5 meter high than Amakashi hill.)

    Third, Summarily none of "Ohokimi, Great King," is written in 205th poem of Man'yoshu with all hand-written copies. In fact, all of the old manuscripts of 205th poem is written in "Kimi, ." It is just the same as 236th poem.

    Fourth, Summarily none of "Ohokimi, Great King, " is written in 241st poem of Man'yoshu with all hand-written copies. In fact, all of old manuscripts of 241st poem is written in "Sumerogi, ." In addition, the basic meaning of the Japanese word "umi o nasu, " is an expression of which constructs a sea with 241st poem of Man'yoshu. But, there is no sea in Yamato. If he were made a pond of Haniyasu by the side of Kaguyama hill, he could not say to construct a sea. He does put express in other word.
    Thus the interpretation of these poems mistakes a fact. There is no reason to suppose that Kakinomoto Hitomaro composed for Imperial Family.

    2. It is necessary for us to put new point of view provided that Kakinomoto Hitomaro do not composed those poems in Yamato. Where do you think to make up these poems a verse? If Ikazuchi mountain can be shifted from Yamato of Ikazuchi hill to Chikushi of Rai-mountain , these poems will highly understand for us. Therefore, there are guarding to both Heaven Shrine and Cloud Shrine as a mausoleum enshrining ancestor's spirit at Rai-mountain (the mountain of thunder,). There is Stone Treasure Sanctuary with Heaven Shrine on top of Rai-mountain. Also, there are guarding at Ikazuchi-Shrin with Cloud Shrine by the Rai-mountain side. The Stone Treasure Sanctuary consist of Ninigi-no-Mikoto , the Seven Heavenly Shrines and the Five earthly Shrines. Specifically, there is a defied of Ninigi spirit at center of Stone Treasure Sanctuary who is the founder of both the Kyushu Dynasty and Yamato Dynasty as Descent from Heaven .     In addition, there are a number of Zyuroku-tenjinsya shrine to studded in Tikushi with Rai-mountain. Accordingly Rai-mountain, which is 955.3 meters high, is always clouding over. All scenery is suitable provided that these poems were composed at Rai-mountain.
    Such a comparison made it clear that Rai-mountain (the mountain of thunder) is expressed in terms of Ikazuchi-mountain in those poems. In fact at Heian Period, There are about three hundred of shrines and temples at Rai-mountain with Rai-mountain Old Map. The mountain of thunder is mausoleum of Kyushu Dynasty to hold down from generation to generation.

Fig.6. Chikushi map & Rai- mountain
Fig.7. The view of Rai-mountain (the mountain of thunder)
Fig.8. Stone Treasure Sanctuary
Fig.9. The Giant Stone 1,2,3
Fig.10. Echo of wind hole at Sennyo Temple
Fig.11. Ikazuchi Shrine


    3. By appreciated of these poems as shown above, the evolution of Kakinomoto Hitomaro as poetic genius is a problem. If the mountain of thunder can be shifted from Yamato to Chikushi, it become really a very skillful poem from dumb one, specifically 235th poem.
    In particular, it is the most important discovery of idea which Hitomaro made 235th poem up, while T'ang's occupation force were at Chikushi in Kyushu, as soon as the defeat of Battle of Hakuson-Kou (A. D. 662-or 663). It is certain that Hitomaro had come at Chikushi in Kyushu for Man'yo of 304th poem.
If it is re-interpretation of the 235th poem, it is due to the fact that Lineal Deity of Kyushu dynasty all alone is the existence at the top of the mountain of thunder free from having been worshipped as patron deity. Because, the bottom line is that none of peoples with hermitage to be broken.
    In addition, the 241st poem of interpretation made a mistake. Shinzo Fukunaga suggest that none of the Japanese word of "umi wo nasu," is reading, and is transposing "uminari, " with pronunciation. The basic meaning of the Japanese word "uminari," is an expression of echo with oceanic noise. Echo of oceanic noise can hear in Rai-mountain and often informed us to prophesy a storm. Also it's echo has been hold on Rai-Shrine as legend of echo with wind hole.
At Rai-mountain, Hitomaro had heard echo with oceanic noise. Echo with oceanic noise itself is repetition of a sound caused by refection from cloud at ocean. But, if echo with oceanic noise could prophesy us the future, this echo could be considered as the message which invoked their ancestors including first monarch of Ninigi in Kyushu Dynasty. It is to make a prediction the destruction of Kyushu dynasty. This report was not a false alarm.
    By composed in the world for God in this poem, it is represents in the world for reality. Out of a body of massive material emerged a contour of the fact. Here is a historical account of the event.

    This approach has four advantage in the basic sense.

  1) While a battle of Hakuson-Kou, whether accidentally or deliberately, Sachiyama as the monarch in Kyushu dynasty was occurred to hold on Tang army, and arrested a prisoner of Tang for nine years. It is possible that Sachiyama, called Houzen no gi ceremony, is forced to participate a ceremony which were obedient to Tang as a leader of Wa-state. He was a practical leader to take a name as Sons of Heaven in the war.
  Bereft of chief, the Establishment of Kyushu dynasty had misgivings about their future which have no idea that it was a device like it every which way.
  At this juncture for survival, they had to make the selection of new monarch which is at the head in front with keeping their connection with the past in Wa-state in alarm, and has to resort to some drastic measures by all means. What their need is not talk but action. But all their plans had come to nothing Sachiyam who is a live after all. They have no plans at the mercy of their enemies, were in a revolting state. They asked for it.
  And, to say that he lawfully presumed to be monarch when he has just been brought a court as a sovereign from Tang, is nothing more than fellow rhetoric. If he could do no wrong, whether guilty or not guilty for war, none one took them ever half-way seriously after this. When they know that their fate is in the hands of blind chance, they were knocked out to be in the same bout with Kyushu dynasty.

  2) After the defeat of Battle of Hakuson-Kou, Kinki Imperial Families as Great King Tenchi make a public statement of being separate from Kyushu Dynasty (Wa-state) through the backing of Tang. Tang gave Kinki Imperial Families a push that "Now that you have us behind you, you may absolutely rest assured that all'll go well, and if you get it started, it's half a battle." They were no flight at Battle of Hakuson-Kou, as describe in old place name of Nima in Harima no kuni Fudoki (Gazetteer of the Province of Harima). And as soon as Kyushu Dynasty defeated, they announced an new augmentation and revision of the caps denoting themselves official rank.
  Also for example, Kinki Imperial Families of the Establishment Nakatomi clan send Joxe for a hostage of Tang as named of student priest before battle of Hakuson-Kou. Koga suppose that he tacitly showed that they agree to the plan.
  A gang of quick-witted formidable Kinki Imperial Families outwitted every the Kyushu Dynasty and left it totally helpless an expert case and beat to it by his opponent who had a better sense of timing. Winner fed off. It was the system. Kinki Imperial Families was just playing the system. They are people who gain stature by standing on someone else's back.
  3) Tang and its confederate Kinki Imperial Family, with a foregone conclusion, they were forced to choose between the two unpleasant options of devil for Kyushu dynasty over the Carthaginian peace. They are the alternatives: to obey till death for Tang, or to surrender for Kinki Imperial Family. The two options of devil were brought to a standstill for Kyushu dynasty and have no elbow room to move around. They were in limbo, closed up upon, saw through for Tang, and had to give Tang's occupation credit for Chikushi unconditional surrender. Tang whose power is checked for Ryrrhic victory, let Kinki Imperial Family separated but Chikushi( or Kyushu), that itself might occupied in Chikushi.
  T'ang's occupation force in Chikushi, they were exhaustively destroyed a series of tomb of Kyushu dynasty to take a name as Sons of Heaven, and plundered a great number of products, for example, a great deal of silks to product at Kyushu in all. Kyushu dynasty was almost completely helpless. ( It were presented to Kuo Wu-Ts'ung and his companions in the description of Chronicles of Japan )
  People in Chikushi, they shook their head and nodded at the appropriate moments because they had no other choice, but inwardly they burned with resentment. But they must keep their mouth shut like a clam. There is no way in which it could be given the go-ahead. It was quite depressing, but I had to escape a living. It was a pitiful sight with gruesome.

  4) In this poem, it is no longer household to live in people in Wa `, nor is clan to worshiped for Deity. Even when they were dead, none of their soul could remain on earth to watch over them. It was an excruciatingly moving scene before his eyes. A severe cession has hit Kyushu dynasty and all those involved in it's people are in a state of great distress.
    Tens of thousands of people in Wa already had died with the battle of T'ang. And a great number of people had been stricken grief to lost husband, son, or grandson in the war. In addition, there are a number of solder still listed as "missing in action" in Korea. In their anguish, the wounded man screamed. There were piteous sounds of suffering and pain. And just when you think you are getting a handle on it, you get ambushed by a flood of painful memories. One cries himself into a state in which tears no longer come. They lost the sense of time bereft of hope. In addition, the earthquake shook the ground in Chikushi. They were having a hard time what were they doing.

    4. When Tang approved Yamato dynasty, Kyushu dynasty saw the end of their hope for the last time. All is lost. Kyushu dynasty turned it position against Kinki Imperial Family such a pain in my rear. This is a hard and fast fact.
    I suppose that Hitomaro was watching people of penetrating in Chikushi which take an awful lot an unknown quantity by working like a dog in the helter-skelter days of the immediate post war in the general pandemonium. He has the reputation of being a poet that has an insight into the mind at heart. All scenery is too sensitive for the human eye to be of use present in fact.
    The poetical genius of Hitomaro is revealed fully in the tragedies. We belive in Hitomaro.
    The disintegration of Wa-state was conceivable earthshaking development in late 8th century. Hitomaro is the greatest poet that not only Japan but also Wa-state has far and away incompatible ever produced a walking history.


235
Sumerogi wa
kami ni shi maseba
amagumo no
Ikazuchi no ue ni
ihori seru kamo

Our Lineal Deity,
a very gods,
Tarries along on top of the mountain of thunder
by the heavenly clouds.


236
kimi wa
kami ni shi maseba
kumo gakuru
Ikazuchi yama ni
miyashiki imasu

Our Lord,
a very god,
spreads his palace precincts
on top of mountain of thunder,
hidden in the clouds.

-----------------------------

205
kimi wa
kami ni shi maseba
amagumo no
ihohega shita ni
kakuri tamahinu

Our Lord,
a very god,
conceals himself
behind five hundred
folds of cloud.

---------------------------------

241
Sumerogi wa
kami ni shi maseba
maki no tatsu
aranakaya ni
uminari sesu kamo

Our Lineal Deity,
a very god,
among the crags
where tower thick black pines.
hear of echo with oceanic noise
(Translated by Yukio Yokota)

----------------------------------------------
*1)
Man'yoshu
Ian Hideo Levy,
A translation of Japan's premier anthology of classical poetry
University of Tokyo Press
Princeton University Press
Volume three
P149,173


303 and 304
Two poems by Kakinomoto Hitomaro while he was traveling by sea down to the land of Chikushi
On the offing
of the Inami Sea---
beautiful its name---
hidden by a thousand lapping waves,
the island, Yamato.
Gazing on the channel
where they ply back and forth
to our Lord's distant Court,
I think of the age of the gods. *4
*4) This appears to refer not to any single myth, but rather to a sense of grandeur which for Hitomaro is an attribute of "the age of the gods" itself.



Man'yoshu
Ian Hideo Levy,
A translation of Japan's premier anthology of classical poetry
University of Tokyo Press
Princeton University Press
Volume three
P151
POEMS ON VARIOUS THEMES
235
Poems written by Kakinomoto Hitomaro at
the time of the Empress' excursion to
Ikazuchi Hill, "the hill of thunder"
Our Lord,
a very god,
builds her lodge
above the thunder
by the heavenly clouds.
A variant of the above poem has it
dedicated to Prince Osakabe. The
variant reads,
Our Lord,
a very god,
spreads his palace precincts
on the hill of thunder,
hidden in the clouds.
---------------------------------------------------
Man'yoshu
Ian Hideo Levy,
A translation of Japan's premier anthology of classical poetry
University of Tokyo Press
Princeton University Press
Volume one
BOOK THREE
P151
POEMS ON VARIOUS THEMES
235
Poems written by Kakinomoto Hitomaro at
the time of the Empress' excursion to
Ikazuchi Hill, "the hill of thunder"
Our Lord,
a very god,
builds her lodge
above the thunder
by the heavenly clouds.
A variant of the above poem has it
dedicated to Prince Osakabe. The
variant reads,
Our Lord,
a very god,
spreads his palace precincts
on the hill of thunder,
hidden in the clouds.
---------------------------------------------------
Man'yoshu
Ian Hideo Levy,
A translation of Japan's premier anthology of classical poetry
University of Tokyo Press
Princeton University Press
Volume one
INTRODUCTION
P14
Hitomaro is a poet without a biography. The only information we have about him comes from his poems and their denotes in The Ten Thousand Leaves itself. We do know that the Kakinomoto clan was an old Yamato family, and one school of thought, represented by the late Orikuchi Shinobu, speculated that they were ceremonial reciters of ritual songs. Genealogical background may explain the only real "fact" we know about Hitomaro, his service to the Court (apparently with very low rank) as a composer of poems of praise and lament for the imperial family. It cannot, however, "explain" the conscious mind, with its own awareness of history, or the personal voice that begins to be heard from the suddenly expanded edifice of ritual language.
Hitomaro's first recorded step as a poet is a step backward, a rhetorical evocation of the mythic world, in whose eternal time the descent of the first Emperor from the "fields of heaven" is identical to the enthronement of the latest sovereign at the palace in Asuka. Hitomaro's task as a Court poet wa one of crafting iconic images which "prove" the divinity of the imperial family. It was a task whose political basis may be traced back to two poems written following the victory of Emperor Tenji's younger brother in the succession dispute, know as the Jinshin War, which broke out after Temji's death in 671. Upon defeating the forces of Tenji's son, this prince assumed the throne as Emperor Temmu in 673. Two Tanka glorify Temmu's construction of his new palace in Asuka as a divine act. Here we find for the first time the words "kami ni shi maseba," an explicit rhetorical device meaning "(but he is ) a very god":

Our Emperor,
a very god,
has turned the fields
where red steeds wandered
into his capital city.
Our Lord,
a very god,
has turned the marshes
where nested flocks of waterfowl
into his imperial city.
(XIX.4260 and 4261)

It is not the divinity of the Emperor which is new here, but the need to establish it explicitly language. This is a theme which Hitomaro would use in his iconic poetry. The simplest example is his turning a procession to Ikazuchi Hill by Empress Jito, Temmu's widow and successor following the death of the Crown Prince, into a divine ascent, based on a conceit on the name "Ikazuchi," which means "thunder."

Our Lord,
a very god,
builds her lodge
above the thunder
by the heavenly clouds.
(II.235)

THE MANYOSHU
The Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkokai Translation of
ONE THOUSAND POEMS
With a Foreword by Donald Keene
Columbia University Press
New York
P47
[III-235]
Composed when the Empress *2) climbed
the Thunder Hill. *3)
Lo, our great Sovereign, a goddess,
Tarries on the Thunder
In the clouds of heaven! *4)
*2) The Empress was the Empress Jito.
*3) In Yamato Province.
*4) This poem is based on the idea that the Sovereigns are the offspring of Amaterasu Omikami, and that their proper sphere is heaven. Here the Thunder Hill is regarded as the actual embodiment of Thunder.[XIX : 4260]
Written after the War of Jinshin *1) was ended.

OUR Sovereign, a god,
Has made his Imperial City*2)
Out of the stretch of swamps,
Where chestnut horses sank
To their bellies

...

P60
Otomo Miyuki

Written after the War of Jinshin *1) was ended. [XIX : 4260]

Our Sovereign, a god,
Has made his Imperial City *2)
Out of the stretch of swamps,
To their bellies.

*1) The civil war of 672.
*2) The Emperor Temmu built his capital on the plain of Kiyomihara of Asuka.
------------------------------------------------
205
Envoy
Our Lord,
a very god,
conceals himself
behind five hundred
folds of cloud.
---------------------------------------------------
Man'yoshu
Ian Hideo Levy,
A translation of Japan's premier anthology of classical poetry
University of Tokyo Press
Princeton University Press
Volume one
241
A variant has,
Our Lord,
a very god,
constructs a sea
among the crags
where tower thick black pines.



NIHONGI
Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697
TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL CHINESE AND JAPANESE
BY W.G. ASTON,
CHARLES E. TUTTLE COMPANY
Rut land, Vermont & Tokyo, Japan
P242-244
A.D.653.
BOOK XXV.54.
...
4th year, Summer, 5th month,12th day. There were send to Great Tang, as Chief Ambassador, Kishi no Nagani, of Upper Shosen rank, as Associate Ambassador Kishi no Koma [also called Ito] of Upper Sho-otsu rank, as Student Priests, Dogen, Dotsu, Dokwo, Yese, Gakusho, Bensho, Yesho, Sonin, Chiso, Dosho, Joye[ Joye was the eldest son of the Oho-omi of the Middle*4)], Adachi[ Adachi was son of Nakatomi no Kome no Muraji]] and Dokwan [ Dokwan was the son of no Omi [son of Toyotarino Omi], and Okina, Hi no Muraji [son of Madama. Another book adds student priests Chiben and Gitoku and the student Ihastumi, Sakahibe no Muraji ], in all 121 persons, who sailed together in the same ship.
...
...
*4) Naidaijin


VII.
THE EMPEROR AME MIKOTO HIRAKASU WAKE
(TENCHI TENNO.)
TENCHI
XXVII. 6-8.
P278
A.D.663.
This year ,in order to assist Pekche, arms were out put in order, ships fitted out, and stores of army provision prepared.
This year was Mizunoye Inu (59 year) of the Cycle.
2nd year, Spring, and 2nd month ,2nd day. ...
3rd month. Wakugo, Kamitsukenu no kimi, and Ohobuta, Hashibito no Muraji, Generals of the Front Division, Wosa, Kose no Kamusaki no Omi, and Nemaro Niwa no Kimi, generals of the Middle Division, and Hirafu Abe no Hikeda no Omi, and Kamatsuka. Ohoyake no Omi. Generals of the Rear Division, were sent in command of 27,000 men to invade Silla.
...
...
17day. The hostile generals arrived before Chyu-yu and encompassed to Royal city. The Thang generals, in command of 170 fighting ships, drew up in line of battle in the Pechon river. The warships which first arrived engaged the Thang fleet, but had not the advantage, and therefore retired. Great Thang stood on its guard in strict order of battle.
27th day. The Japanese generals and Pakche King, regardless of the aspect of affairs, said one another :- " If we struggle which small get first, they will naturally retire of themselves." So they again led forward the routed Japanese ranks, and the troops of the Middle Division of their force, to attack the Great Tang fleet. Bat Tang closed upon their vessels from right and left, and engaged them from all sides. In a short space of time the Imperial force was defeated, and many fell into the water and were drowned. The ships were unable to man oeuvre either astern or ahead. Yachi no Takutsu looked up to heaven and made oaths ; he gashed his teeth, and in his rage slew several tens of men. He then fell fighting. At this time King Phung-chhyang of Pakche with a number of others, embarked in a ship and fled to Koryo.
9th month, 7th day. Not until now did the Pekche city of Chyu-yu surrender to Thang. Then the people of that country said to one another : " Chyu-yu has fallen : there is nothing more to be done ; this day the name of Pekche has become extinct.
...
...
XXVII. 9.
P280
A.D.664.
3rd year, Spring , 2nd month , 9th day. The Emperor by order to the Prince Imperial, his younger brother, announced an augmentation and revision of the caps denoting official rank, and also an increase in the designations of the grades, as well as matters relating to the senior members of families, their vassals and domestic retainers.
There were twenty-six grades of caps, viz. :--
Dai-shiki (greater woven stuff)
Sho-shiki (lesser do. )
Dai-shu (greater embroidery)
Sho-shu (lesser do. )
Dai-shi (greater purple)
Sho-shi (lesser do. )
Upper Dai-kin (greater brocade)
Middle Dai-kin ( do. )
Lower Dai-kin ( do. )
Upper Sho-kin (lesser brocade)
Middle Sho-kin ( do. )
Lower Sho-kin ( do. )
Upper Dai-sen (greater mountain)
Middle Dai-sen ( do. )
Lower Dai-sen ( do. )
Upper Dai-otsu (greater kingfisher)
Middle Dai-otsu ( do. )
Lower Dai-otsu ( do. )
Upper Sho-otsu (lesser kingfisher)
Middle Sho-otsu ( do. )
Lower Sho-otsu ( do. )
Dai-ken (greater ken)
Sho-ken (lesser ken)
These made in all twenty-six grades. The former kwa (flower) was changed to kin (brocade), and six grade were added, beginning with Kin and ending with Otsu. There was also an augmentation and alteration by which the single grade of initial rank was changed to the two grades of Daiken and Shoken. These were made different, but in all other respects the former rule was followed.
To the senior member of the great families long swords went granted, and to the senior member of lesser families short swords were granted, while to the senior members of the Tomo no Miyakko, etc., shield and bows and arrows were given. Moreover, their vassals and domestic retainers were settled.
3th month. Prince Syon-kwang of Pekche and his people were given a residence at Naniha.
There was a star which fell north of the capital.
This spring there was an earthquake.
Summer, 5th month, 17day. Lie Jen-yuan the (Chinese) general for Pekche,send the Chao-san-ta-fu Kuo Wu-ts'ung to present a letter-box and gifts.
...
Winter, 10th, 4th day. Kuo Wu-ts'ung and his companions were dismissed home. On this day the Emperor ordered Nakatomi no Naijin to send the Buddhist priest Chi-sho with presents for Kuo Wu-ts'ung.
...
12th mouth, 12th day. Kuo Wu-ts'ung and his suite took their departure.
...
...

P283-284
A.D. 665.
4th year, Spring, 2nd mouth, 25th day.
...
9th mouth, 23rd day. The Land of Tang sent Liu Te-kao Chao-san-ta-fu, Sub-perfect of Ichou, and Sang-chu-kuo and others.
By others is meant a General of the Right Division of the Guards, of the rank of Shang-chu-kou, a General for Pakche, who was a Chao-ta-fu of Chu-kuo rank, by name Kuo Wu-Ts'ung, and others, 254 persons in all. 7th month 28th day. They arrived at Tsushima. 9th month, 20th day. They arrived at Tsukushi. 22nd day . They forwarded a letter-case.
...
11th mouth, 13th day. A banquet was given to Liu Te-kao and the others.
12th mouth, 14th day. Presented were made to Liu Te-kao and the rest.
In this month Liu Te-kao and his people took their departure.
...

A.D.666.
In this year Oho-ishi, Mori no kimi, of Shokin rank, and others were set to Great Tang, etc., etc.
By others is meant Ihashiki, Sakahibe no Muraji, of Shosen rank, and Harima, Kimi no Kishi, of Daiotsu rank.
...
...
TENCHI
XXVII. 22.
P290-292
A.D.669.
8th year, Spring, 1st month, 9th day.
...
...
12th month, There was a fire in the Treasury.
...
...
Moreover, Great Tang send Kuo Ya-ts'ung and others, more than 2000 men.


TENCHI
XXVII. 28-29.

P294
A.D.671.
10th year, Spring, 1st month,2nd day.
...
13th day. Liu Jen-yuan, the (Chinese) general for Pekche, send Li Shou-chen and others to present a memorial.
...
P297-298
11th month, 10th day. The Governor of the province of Tsushima send a messenger to the Viceroy of Tsukushi, saying:- " On the day after the moon's birth these four persons, viz., the Buddhist priest Doku, Satsuyama, Tsukushi no Kimi, Sasa, Karashima no Suguri, ad Iha, Nunoshi no Obito, arrived from Thang and reported that the Thang Envoys, Kuo Ya-ts'ung and his suite, numbering 600 persons, escorting Sa-thek Son-teung and his companions, who numbered 1400 persons, the total number being 2000, had embarked in forty-seven ships which came to an anchor together at the island of Hijishima, where they said to one another: - ' The ships of our people are numerous, and if they suddenly arrived thither, it is to be feared that their guards would be alarmed, and engage us in a battle of archery. ' So they have sent on Dobun and others to given some notice in advance of their intention of proceeding to the court.
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P302
TENMU
BOOK XVIII. 2.
A.D.672.
1st year, Spring, 3rd month, 18day. Inashiki, Adzumi on Muraji, of Inner Lesser seventh rank, was sent to Tsukushi to announce to mourning for the Emperor to Kuo Ya-ts'ung and the others. Upon this Kuo Ya-ts'ung and his people all put on mourning and raised lament for him three times, turning towards the East and bowing their heads to the ground.
21th day. Kuo Ya-ts'ung and the others with repeated obeisances offered a box with a letter and presents in token of goodwill.
Summer, 5th month, 12th day. Armour and bows and arrows were presented to Kuo Ya-ts'ung and his companions. Other presents were made of them on this day, amounting altogether to 1673 hiko of coarse silk, 2852 tan of cloth, and 666 kin of floss silk.
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30th day. Kuo Ya-ts'ung and his people took their departure.
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