Bulletin Showa college of Pharmaceutical Sciences No.26,1992

New Report on the "Discovery" of
the New Continent
in the Pre-Columbus Period

Dedicated to the glorious memory of
Mr. Evans and Mrs. Meggers

Takehiko Furuta

1.  In the "Pre-Columbus" period, the New Continent had already been known to the people of other continents. They had visited it and returned to their home. Therefore their experiences had been reported to other people and also recorded in trustworthy historical books.
Formerly nobody would show any interest in this subject, but recently it is obtaining its credibility in the fields of historical literature and archaeology. In this paper I will elaborate upon it.

2.  We can find revealing sentences in Worenzhuan*1) (a part of SanguozhiSanguozi).

They are as follows:
"And there are Luoguo Luoguo (a country where naked people live) and Heichiguo Heichiguo (a country where people with black teeth live). They are in the southeast of Japan. It takes one year by boat to reach them."

  The descriptions mentioned above mean that;

(l) These two countries Louguo Luoguo and Heichiguo Heichiguo existed in the third century.
(2) They were located*2) in the southeast of Woguo Woguo (the northern part of Kyushu).
(3) It took one year by boat to reach them. (According to the Woguo Calendar*3), this equals half a year in relation to the present one).

  This news was brought by Woren Woren (a big group of ancient Japanese). A Chinese Chenshou Chenshou , a chronicler official of the Xijin dynasty*4)Xijin wrote this news down in Sanguozhi Sanguozhi , official historical books on the dynasty. I surmised these descriptions are real, and these countries were located in the northwest coast of South America ; Ecuador and Peru. I stated this view in my book*5) twenty years ago.

3.  Concerning the subject mentioned above we can find other important sentences in Sanguozhi Sanguozhi.
They are as follows;
"We (Chinese armies) proceeded into Susen Susen areas and on the east reached Dahai Dahai (northwest of the Japan Sea, perhaps extending to the Pacific Ocean). The elders said that the strange-faced People lived in a country near where the Sun rose."
In my book I supposed that (the strange-faced People) were Woren Woren. For Woguo Woguo was situated in the east of China. But it was my error. Because in this context, "the elders" indicate the elders of Sushen Sushen (Vladiostok), Woguo Woguo (its heart was in northern Kyushu) and did not lie in the east of it.
(On this point Mr. Kamata Takeshi Mr. pointed out my error at the Shirakaba Symposium).

  Furthermore, Woguo Woguo lay in the far west of Louguo Luoguo and Heichiguo Heichiguo and took one year by boat. So Woguo Woguo could not be called "near where the Sun rises." From this viewpoint my old understanding was obviously incorrect.

4.  This being the case, who were "the strange-faced people?" The answer is now clearer to me. That is, it took one year by boat to get to the land where men lived and made countries, southeast of where Woren Woren lived. The names of their countries were also noted. They were the farthest lands that people mentioned in SangouzhiSanguozi, and the other ancient Chinese history books did not write about it in Shiji Shiji and Hanshu Hanshu. Consequently, Louguo Luoguo and Heichiguo Heichiguo also belonged to a part of the great land where "the strange-faced people*6)" lived. They were ancient Native American who lived in the New Continent. The elders of Sushen Susen called them "the strange -faced people." This is my new theory.

5.  In this theory we should learn how people recognized these countries. The elders of Sushen Susen, did not say "From which direction dose the Sun rise?" as perceived from only one place (for example Vladiostok) they lived. They talked about it using only the common sense of Sushen Susen. It was regarded as the great area of ancient culture which spreads over the northeast area of the Present Russian Republic. The large ice fields spread over from the Behring Strait to Alaska. Therefore it was called the New Continent based on their common sense. To say the least, the people who lived near the north border of the New Continent could keep in touch with their environment. We can easily imagine that they went hunting beasts on ice fields, slide over the snow in sledgs and entered Alaska through the frozen Behring Strait in winter. If anyone insists that " They had no knowledge of Alaska," I assure you that he is selfrighteous.

  Besides, there is the Sea. In the southern part of the Behring Strait flows the North Pacific Current. It is the extension of the Kuroshio Kuroshio, It goes southward, becomes the California Current, and reaches the distant part of the sea that it still visible from the northwest shore of South America (Ecuador and Peru). There it collides with the Humbold Current coming from the north, that is the largest cold current on earth. This makes for the greatest fishing ground.
(The mixed currents go westward to Tahiti island. )
  I cannot believe that the fishermen of Sushen Susen did not know about the existence of the great fishing ground in the south sea. Because they could have the inshore fishing from the southern area of the Behring Strait to the greatest fishing ground. We cannot deny that the people of Sushen Susen knew about this. On every occasion, the elders of Sushen Susen stated that the New Continent and the existence of "the strange-faced people," were ancient Native Americans. They stated this fact to the Chinese.
  On the other hand, Woren Woren also knew about the existence of the continent and two countries. They mentioned this fact to the Chinese.
  Subsequently, the Chinese became aware of the existence of the New Continent, by the elders of Sushen Susen and Woren Woren. Therefore they recorded two sure news in their historical books SanguozhiSanguozi.

6.  Hanshu Hanshu, the famous Chinese historical books were written in the first century before Sanguozhi Sanguozi. In it we can find the sentences : "There is a country called anxi anxi in the west of Xiyu Xiyu (the West Area). The elders of this country are said to have heard that " There is a country called Tiaozhi Tiaozhi which takes more hundred days by foot from our country. Furthermore in the west,the place where the Sun sets takes a hundred days by boat."
  Probably Anxi anxi is called Persia (ancient Iran). Tiaozhi Tiaozhi is called Turk or Arabia (or northwest Africa). It cannot be disputed that only the sea exists west of Tiaozhi Tiaozhi. The area where the Sun sets is far away from this country, because, as you may recall, the place where the Sun sets takes more than a hundred days by boat to get there. Therefore we cannot but regard the area*7) where the Sun sets as the New Continent or, at least, the east area of the New Continent.

  In China, formerly they had believed that the Sun set in Kunlunshan Kunlunshan. In the first century B.C., Wudi Wudi, the emperor of the Han Han dynasty, sent Zhahggian Zhahggian to Xiyu Xiyu (the West Area). He believed that the old dished view of Kunlunshan Kunlunshan was incorrect.

  In ShijiShiji, the most famous historical books in China. Simagian Simagian, the author, wrote about the emperor's contention proudly. Han Han, the new dynasty dispelled the ideas held concerning the Xia Xia, Shang Shang, and Zhou Zhou dynasties with their own traditional beliefs.

  This is the same method they used to maintain the belief that the Sun rose in the east island where Woren Woren lived.

  But the Wei Wei dynasty sent its army to the border of Sushen Sushen to fight against Gaogouli Gaogouli, and its envoy to Woguo Woguo (ancient Japan). A commander (Zhangzheng Zhangzheng) was also sent to help Beimihu Beimihu, the queen of Waguo Woguo and was made to remain with them for twenty years. Subsequently, they were taught by Woguo Woguo (a big group of ancient Japanese). In the southeast, far from Woguo Woguo, the land where the Sun shone and men lived actually existed.
  Consequently the Wei and Xijin Xijin new dynasties could correct "their mistaken notion" of the Xia Xia, Shang Shang, Zhou Shu Zhou, Gin Gin, and Han Han dynasties.
  This is how the "Discovery of the New Continent" was written in the Chinese historical books Sanguozhi Sanguozi in the third century.

7.  The former theory concerning the ancient voyage on the open sea far from land has been changed completely during the last several years in Japan. These changes are as follows:

(1) It has been confirmed that exchanges between the Japanese Islands and China (the area of Jiangnan Jiangnan) took place in about 5500 B.C., (A large quantity of Shijue Shijue) were excavated at the ruins of Hemudu Hemudu near GuijishanGuijishan. They belonged to the same ancient civilization as Ketsujyo-mimikazari Ketsujyo-mimikazari in the Japanese Islands).
(2)  It has been proved that exchanges between Vladiostok and the Japanese Islands (Shimaneken Shimaneken and Hokkaido Hokkaido and Aomoriken Aomoriken ) occurred between about 2000.B. C. - lOOO B.C. (Products of obsidian that were excavated from the ruins within 100 kilometers around Vladiostok, were brought from Okinoshima Okinoshima in Shimaneken Shimaneken << about 50% of them>> and Akaigawa Akaigawa in Hokkaido Hokkaido << about 40% of them>>. This was verified by an inspection of optical science).
In reference to this point, I had already announced the result of the investigation mentioned above at the symposium in Izumo (ShimanekenShimanekens) through the analysis of the Kunibiki Kunibiki myth. My theory was confirmed.

(3) Then, during the same period, it has been proved that exchanges between Tsushima Tsushima (the island between Korea Korea and Kyushu Kyushu) and Hokkaido Hokkaido or Aomoriken Aomoriken. (The shell ornaments and primitive harpoons unearthed from the ruins of Saka Saka on Minecho Minetyo in Tsushima Tushima were clearly special products of the northern area around Hokkaido Hokkaido.
(4) It has been confirmed that exchanges between Hokkaido Hokkaido and NagasakiNagasakiken and Okinawa Okinawa island occurred in the first and fifth century. (The proof of this are the ornaments of the Gohora Gohora shell which have been excavated from the ruins of Usu Usu in Hokkaido Hokkaido. This shell is a special product of the southern area in Okinawa Okinawa and other locations further south. In addition, Nagasaki Nagasaki ken is regarded as the place of production of these ornaments).

  As a result, traces of an ancient people who used to set out on the ocean by ship, appeared one after another. They often set out across the ocean currents.
  In both cases of (1) and (2) mentioned above, they crossed a part of the Kuroshio Kuroshio ocean current. That is, their crossing was not simply accidental drifts but intentional crossing. According to recent reports on ancient voyages, it is common sense to think that:

"They could set out across a part of the Kuroshio Kuroshio ocean current. Why could' t they reach the west coast of Ecuador and Peru? They could reach them because of the strong Kuroshio Kuroshio main ocean current."

Formerly many scholars had denied and sometimes decried the reality of the descriptions of Louguo Luoguo and Heichiguo Heichiguo (in Worenzhuan). They had judged them to be extreme and irrational, out of the bounds of possibility. But recently, various facts in the fields of historical literature and archaeology have been uncovered. Because of this, men can hardly maintain the old customs of denial which they had clung to in the past without, of course, being labeled peculiar bigots.

8. Following are summaries of the above evident:

(1) The description of Louguo Luoguo and Heichiguo Heichiguo is real.
They help to explain how the countries in the northwestern part of South America were before the third century.
(2) It has been established that "the strange-faced people" written in the preface of Sanguozhi Sanguozi (Dongyizhuan Dongyizhuan) showed people, in the New Continent, ancient Native American.
(3) The Chinese heard the news, once from Woren Woren, and another time from the elders of Sushen Susen, in the northeastern area of the Russia Republic, including the Yanhaizou Yanhaizou. Both pieces of news did not originate from the same source. However, both confirmed the fact that the place where "the strange-faced people" lived was in the east. The Chinese understood this and recorded the information in Sahguozhi Sanguozi.
(4) It has been proved by the last several discoveries of archaeology that several thousand years ago ancient people had already set out for voyages across the ocean intentionally. Therefore we can hardly doubt the validity of the description in Sanguozhi Sanguozi. Judging by these facts mentioned, it can be asserted with certainty that there were exchanges between the continents in the Pre-Columbus period. The glorious memory of scholars has revealed this to the world.

  Of course, the meaning of the brave act by Columbus on human history cannot be neglected. However, at the same time, we can hardly dismiss the meaning of real human exchanges in the Pre-Columbus period.

9.  Twenty years ago I regarded the voyages of Woren Woren over the Pacific Ocean as a real historical fact. Many scholars laughed at and ignored my theory, however, only two scholars did not. They were Mr. Clifford Evans and Mrs. Meggers Betty J. in the Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Washington D.C. They had profound knowledge through their research and investigation with Emilio Estraba (Ecuador) for many years. They gave me erudite support on my hypothesis which was based on records.

  Mr. Evans has died. However, study lives forever. He followed the road of truth as real cultured adventure. In the near future their discovery will become evident to everyone. I will dedicate this essay to them before that day comes. I feel happy and honored to do this. It is with sincere gratitude that I applaud all scholars before me for opening the door to a wider and deeper appreciation of cultural and historical truth.


*1) Worenzhuan
  Chinese authorized history books (edited by Chenshou Chenshou of Xijin Xijin in the third century). They have two prefaces: one is appended to Wuwan,Xianbeizhuan Wuwan,Xianbeizhuan, the other Dongyizhuan . Worenzhuan is included at the end of Weizhi .

*2) located
  To be more precise syuzyu-koku lies in the southeast of Woguo. Louguo Luoguo and Heichiguo Heichiguo are in the southeast of syuzyu-koku.

*3) Woguo Calendar
  It is the ancient calendar which regards one year in the present calendar as two years.

*4) Xijin dynasty
  Chinese dynasty in the third century (265-316).

*5) my book
  "There was no 'Jamataikoku Jamataikoku' 1971".

*6) the strange-faced people
  The phrase American Indian is improper as it is generally known today.

*7) the area
  Concerning of the voyage of Columbus, it took about 70 days to reach the New Continent, according to The Journal of "Christopher Columbus. "
   (Mr. Harada Minoru taught me this correspondence.)

 We want several opinions about the New Report on the "Discovery" of the New Continent in the Pre-Columbus Period, please send E-mail to Yukio Yokota. sinkodai@furutasigaku.jp

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