None of this poem was composed by King Yuryaku

 

ko mo yo
miko mochi
fukushi mo yo
mibukushi mochi
kono oka ni
na tsumasu ko
ie kikana
na norasanu *1)
soramitsu
yamato no kuni wa
oshinabete
ware koso ore
shikinabete
warekoso mase
ware ni koso wa
norame
ie o mo na o mo

O maiden
with a basket,
a pretty basket,
with a scoop,
a pretty scoop,
maiden picking greens
on this hillside:
I want to ask about your house;
I want to be told your name.
In the sky-filling land of Yamato
it is I
who rule everyone
it is I
who rule everywhere,
and so I think you will tell me
where you live,
what you are called

1) Emended to follow to Nihon Koten bungaku zenshu edition; the NKBTediton omits the particle na.
(Translated by Helen Craig McCullough)

   This poem is the head of Man'yoshu, and it is said to be composed by King Yuryaku . But the interpretation of this poem in which is the some words are falsified, misleads us.

   First, none of " , shikinabete, meaning rule everywhere " is written in all hand-written copies of Man'yoshu, and cannot read so. In addition, the word of "sikinabete" is not Japanese phrase. In no case should ", ki(reading) " be written in it. The word of ", noberu, tell (Japanese verb)" was changed to the analogous word of ", ki(reading) " with a form of Chinese Character. This interpretation was given by Motoori Norinaga.
   In fact, all of old hand-written copies are written as ", noberu, tell (verb)." Also it was putting ", shi(reading)" away from ",shi&norinahete," and had gone on "norinahete" in many hand-written copies in it before being Edo period (1600-1868). As a result ", shi(reading)" moved into the preceding word, and united former phrase.

 

ware koso ore
shikinabete

it is I
who rule everyone
it is I
who rule everywhere,

It become clear to read as follows.

 warekoso orishika, norina hete
I had been in Yamato, already I told you my name

", norina, I told you my name" is the rule of good behavior of being in love from ancient.

   For the first time Motoori Norinaga was only the person falsified this word. Why Motoori changed the word from ", tell(verb) " to ", ki(reading) "? In this original poem, it must be told the poet's name and home. But none of King Yuryaku's name is told. His name is Augustness Oho-hatsuse Waka-take in Nihon Shoki (Chronicles of Japan,). He later on called "Great King (Okimi) or Tenno." Yuryaku Tenno is his posthumous name.
In Addition Motoori Norinaga perhaps would be thunk that it had been not all right that King Yuryaku himself told her his name.
   But it is on a rule basis of right behaviour that if you would gone into her name and home, you should first give to her your name and home. King Yuryaku have no knowledge of the respect. But if none of King Yuryaku would be, it has been the person which is taking the name of ", Afuna Tode."
A first name of ", Afuna" is presence of ancient Izumo (Present name of Shimane Prefecture)" for Afunamuchi (or Onamuchi)."
An analogous name of ", Idei" is presence of ancient Name Plate in Kanto.

I suppose that he told her his name. That name is ", Afuna Tode."
The presence of his name has shown that this poem never be composed by King Yuryaku.

   Second, on the whole ", ware ni koso wa, it is I" is difficult to interpret so. And none of ", so(reading)" is reading. Because ", so(reading)" is already used twice of this poem. On the other hand among in it is reasonable mostly to read the word of ", se(reading)." Furthermore, if ", wa (reading)" would be putting into this phrase as Nishihongwanji Text, it is more clear.


      
ware ni koso wa
and so I think you will tell me

It is a change drastically in the mean of this phrase.

 ware kowaseba
please I would like you to

   Third, also ", ie kikana, (na) norasanu , I want to ask about your house; I want to be told (your name)" is an unnatural quality. Apparently non write to " na, your name" for all hand-written copies in Man'yoshu. Then it is at all a poor bit of writing.

   In addition, "with a scoop" put change to say for "a pretty scoop " at first phrase in it. So he respects former to her, on the other hand he make attempt at forcing to say latter her name and home. It is confused this poem without any order. I can't make sense of what it means.

 
ie kikana
(na) norasanu
I want to ask about your house;
I want to be told (your name)

I would devised a way to replace next phrase.

ie kikan, na norasane
I want to ask your home;
I want to be told your name.

   Finally, the next value can provide insight into the interpretation of this poem. One is value of being all hand-written copies in Man'yoshu. One another is value of the rule of right behavour in world. These value allows us to recognize well in this poem as follows.

         

ko mo yo, miko mochi
fukushi mo yo, mibukushi mochi
kono oka ni, na tsumasu ko
ie kikan na norasane
soramitsu yamato no kuni wa, Afuna Tode
ware koso orishika norina hete warekoso mase
ware kowaseba norame ie o mo na o mo

O maiden
with a basket, a pretty basket,with a scoop, a pretty scoop,
maiden picking greens on this(Kono) hillside:
I want to ask your home; I want to be told your name.
a man from Yamato with a delicious sky, my name is Afuna Tode
I had been in Yamato, already I told you my name, now be by you
please I would like you to tell your name and home

  I suppose that this poem is composed around Kono shrine in Tango (Present name of Northern Kyoto Prefecture). Because the word of "kono" is mean of "this," is pronoun. But none can be indicated this word. Therefore, Also the first word of "Ko mo yo" shows to be linked place name.

  Similarly as other poems, the interpretation of this poem allows us to make clear as follows.

1.A interpretation of a poem is made at poem itself, because the poem itself has the first form of a writing.
2. "Tyusyaku, notes of the poem" is not the first form of a writing, has in a suggestion of "interpretation of when make up a book by the author".

  We recommend that this delicious poem in love by Afuna Tode composed for the period of King Yuryaku(A.D 456-479).

Appendixes

1) The interpretation of this word which "soramitsu" is formed is very complex. But it is simple set to word which is expressed in the mean of "a delicious sky" in this point.

 

F.7. It is a sample Text with hand-written copy (None)

 

F.8. References Map


Works Cited

Brocade by Night
"KOKIN WAKASYU" AND THE JAPANESE COURT STYLE IN JAPANESE CLASSICAL POETRY

HELEN CRAIG McCULLOUGH

STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
Stanford, California
1985

 

P6 The Chinese Heritage

MYS 1. attributed to Emperor Yuryaku (5 th c.)

ko mo yo
miko mochi
fukushi mo yo
mibukushi mochi
kono oka ni
na tsumasu ko
ie kikana
na norasanu 9)
soramitsu
yamato no kuni wa
oshinabete
ware koso ore
shikinabete
warekoso mase
ware ni koso wa
norame
ie o mo na o mo

O maiden
with a basket,
a pretty basket,
with a scoop,
a pretty scoop,
maiden picking greens
on this hillside:
I want to ask about your house;
I want to be told your name.
In the sky-filling land of Yamato
it is I
who rule everyone
it is I
who rule everywhere,
and so I think you will tell me
where you live,
what you are called

9. Emended to follow to Nihon Koten bungaku zenshu edition; the NKBTediton omits the particle na.


Man'yoshu
IAN HIDEO LEVY

A TRANSLATION OF JAPAN'S PREMIER ANTHOLOGY OF CLASSICAL POETRY

UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO PRESS
PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS

VOLUME ONE


 We want several opinions about None of this poem was composed by King Yuryaku, please send E-mail to Yukio Yokota. sinkodai@furutasigaku.jp

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Created by "Yukio Yokota"
Copyrighted by "Takehiko Furuta"