None of this poem was composed by King Yuryaku

雜歌
泊瀬朝倉宮御宇天皇代 [<大>泊瀬稚武天皇]
天皇御製歌
籠毛與 美籠母乳 布久思毛與 美夫君志持 此岳尓 菜採須兒
家吉閑名 告<紗>根 虚見津 山跡乃國者 押奈戸手 吾許曽居
師<吉>名倍手 吾己曽座 我<許>背齒 告目 家呼毛名雄母

籠もよ み籠持ち 堀串もよ み堀串もち この岳に 菜摘ます児
家聞かな 告らさぬ そらみつ 大和の國は おしなべて
われこそ 居れ しきなべて われこそ座せ われにこそは 告らめ家をも名をも

ko mo yo
miko mochi
fukushi mo yo
mibukushi mochi
kono oka ni
na tsumasu ko
ie kikana
na norasanu *1)
soramitsu
yamato no kuni wa
oshinabete
ware koso ore
shikinabete
warekoso mase
ware ni koso wa
norame
ie o mo na o mo

O maiden
with a basket,
a pretty basket,
with a scoop,
a pretty scoop,
maiden picking greens
on this hillside:
I want to ask about your house;
I want to be told your name.
In the sky-filling land of Yamato
it is I
who rule everyone
it is I
who rule everywhere,
and so I think you will tell me
where you live,
what you are called

1) Emended to follow to Nihon Koten bungaku zenshu edition; the NKBTediton omits the particle na.
(Translated by Helen Craig McCullough)

This poem is the head of Man'yoshu 万葉集, and it is said to be composed by King Yuryaku 雄略. But the interpretation of this poem in which some words are falsified, and misleads us.

First, none of " 師<吉>名倍手, shikinabete, meaning rule everywhere " is written in all hand-written copies of Man'yoshu, and cannot read so. In addition, the word of " 師<吉>名倍手 sikinabete" is not Japanese phrase. In no case should " 吉, ki(reading) " be written in it. The word of " 告, noberu, tell (Japanese verb) " was changed to analogous word " 吉, ki(reading) " of a form of Chinese Character. This interpretation was given by only Motoori Norinaga 本居宣長.
In fact all of old hand-written copies are written as " 告, noberu, tell (verb) ". Also it was putting " 師,shi(reading)" away from "師告名倍手,shi&norinahete," and had gone on "告名倍手, norinahete" in many hand-written copies in it before being Edo period (1600-1868). As a result " 師,shi(reading)" moved into the preceding word, and united former phrase.

吾許曽 居 師<吉>名倍手
われこそ 居り しきなべて
ware koso ore
shikinabete

it is I
who rule everyone
it is I
who rule everywhere,

It become clear to read as follows.

吾許曽居師 告名倍手
われこそ居(お)りしか 告名経て
warekoso orashi, norina hete
I had been in Yamato, already I told you my name

"告名, norina, I told you my name" is the rule of good behavior of being in love from ancient.

For the first time Motoori Norinaga was only the person falsified this word. Why Motoori is changed to word from " 告,tell(verb) " to " 吉, ki(reading) "? In this original poem, it must be told poet's name and home. But King Yuryaku's name is not told. His name is Augustness Oho-hatsuse Waka-take 大泊瀬稚武尊 in Nihon Shoki (Chronicles of Japan, 日本書紀). He later on called "Great King (Okimi) or Tenno." Yuryaku Tenno 雄略天皇 is his posthumous name.
In Addition Motoori Norinaga perhaps would be thunk that it had been not all right that King Yuryaku himself told her his name.
But it is on a rule basis of right behaviour that if you would gone into her name and home, you should first give to her your name and home. King Yuryaku have no knowledge of the respect. But if none of King Yuryaku would be, it has been the person which is taking the name of " 押奈戸手, Afuna Tode."

A first name of " 押奈, Afuna" is presence of ancient Izumo 出雲 (Present name of Shimane Prefecture)" for Afunamuchi 大穴牟遅 (or Onamuchi)."
An analogous name of "韋提, Idei" is presence of ancient Name Plate in Kanto.
I suppose that he told her his name. That mame is "押奈戸手, Afuna Tode."
The presence of his name has shown that this poem is never composeed King Yuryaku.

Second, on the whole "我<許>背齒, われにこそは, ware ni koso wa, it is I" is difficult to interpret so. And none of " 背, so(reading)" is reading. Because "曽, so(reading)" is already used twice this poem. On the other hand among in it is reasonable mostly to read the word of " 背, se(reading)." Furthermore, if " 者, wa (reading)" would be putting into this phrase as Nishihongwanji Text, it is more clear.

我許背齒
われにこそは
ware ni koso wa
and so I think you will tell me

It is a chage drastically in the mean of this phrase.

我許<者>背齒 吾こわせば
ware kowaseba
please I would like you to

Third, also " 家聞かな 告らさね ie kikana, (na) norasanu , I wanto to ask about your house; I want to be told (your name)" is an unnatural quality. Apparently non write to " na, your name" for all hand-written copies in Man'youshu. Then it is at all a poor bit of writting.
In additon, "with a scoop" put change to say for "a pretty scoop " at first phrase in it. So he respects former to her, on the other hand he make attempt at forcing to say latter her name and home. It is confused this poem without any order. I can't make sense of what it means.

家吉閑名 告<紗>根
家聞かな 告らさね
ie kikana
(na) norasanu
I wanto to ask about your house;
I want to be told (your name)

I would devised a way to replace next phrase.

家吉閑 名告沙根
家聞かん 名告らさね
ie kikan, na norasane
I want to ask your home;
I want to be told your name.

Finally, the interpretation of this poem can provide insight into to the next view. One view is value of all hand-written copies in Man'yoshu. one another view is the rule of right behaviour in world. These view allows us to recognize well in this poem as follows.

籠毛與 美籠母乳 布久思毛與 美夫君志持 此岳尓 菜採須兒
家吉閑 名告沙根 虚見津 山跡乃國者 押奈戸手
吾許曽居師 吉名倍手 吾己曽座 我許<者>背齒 告目 家呼毛名雄母

籠もよ み籠持ち 堀串もよ み堀串もち この岳(おか)に 菜摘ます児
家聞かん 名告らさね そらみつ 大和の國は 押奈(あふな)戸手(とで)
われこそ居(お)りしか 告名経(へ)て われこそ座せ 吾請(こわ)せば 告らめ 家をも名をも

ko mo yo, miko mochi
fukushi mo yo, mibukushi mochi
kono oka ni, na tsumasu ko
ie kikan na norasane
soramitsu yamato no kuni wa, Auna Tode
ware koso orishika norina hete warekoso mase
ware kowaseba norame ie o mo na o mo

O maiden
with a basket, a pretty basket,with a scoop, a pretty scoop,
maiden picking greens on this(Komo) hillside:
I want to ask your home;I want to be told your name.
a man from Yamato with a delicous sky, my mame is Afuna Tode
I had been in Yamato, as I told you my name, now be by you
please I would like you to tell your name and home

I suppose that this poem is composed around Komo shrine 籠神社 in Tango 丹後 (Present name of Northern Kyoto Prefecture). Because the word of "kono" is mean of "This," is pronoun. But none can be indicated this word. Also the first word of "Ko mo yo" shows to be linked place name.

Similarly as other poems, the interpretation of this poem allows us to make clear as follows.
1.A interpretation of a poem is made at poem itself, because the poem itself has the first form of a writing.
2."Tyusyaku, notes of the poem" is not the first form of a writing, has in a suggestion of "interpretation of when make up a book by the author."

We recommend that this delicious poem in love by Afuna Tode composed for the period of King Yuryaku(A.D 456-479).

F.6. The Reading Table summarizes the information we have obtained so far in this poem.

Appendixes

1) The interpretation of this word which "soramitsu" is formed is very complex. But it is simple set to word which is expressed in the mean of "a delicious sky" in this point.

F.7. It is a sample for hand-written copy (None)

F.8. References Map


Works Cited

Brocade by Night
"KOKIN WAKASYU" AND THE JAPANESE COURT STYLE IN JAPANESE CLASSICAL POETRY

HELEN CRAIG McCULLOUGH

STANFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
Stanford, California
1985

P6 The Chinese Heritage

MYS 1. attributed to Emperor Yuryaku(5 th c.)

ko mo yo
miko mochi
fukushi mo yo
mibukushi mochi
kono oka ni
na tsumasu ko
ie kikana
na norasanu 9)
soramitsu
yamato no kuni wa
oshinabete
ware koso ore
shikinabete
warekoso mase
ware ni koso wa
norame
ie o mo na o mo

O maiden
with a basket,
a pretty basket,
with a scoop,
a pretty scoop,
maiden picking greens
on this hillside:
I want to ask about your house;
I want to be told your name.
In the sky-filling land of Yamato
it is I
who rule everyone
it is I
who rule everywhere,
and so I think you will tell me
where you live,
what you are called

9. Emended to follow to Nihon Koten bungaku zenshu edition; the NKBTediton omits the particle na.
--------------------------------------------------

Man'yoshu
IAN HIDEO LEVY

A TRANSLATION OF JAPAN'S PREMIER ANTHOLOGY OF CLASSICAL POETRY

UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO PRESS
PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS

VOLUME ONE


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Created by" Yukio Yokota"
Copyrighted by" Takehiko. Furuta"