Bulletin Showa college of Pharmaceutical Science No.26,1992

New Report on the"Discovery" of
the New Continent
in the Pre-Columbus Period

Dedicated to the glorious memory of
Mr. Evans and Mrs. Meggers--

Takehiko Furuta

1. In the "Pre-Columbus" period, the New Continent had already been known to the people of other continents. They had visited it and returned to their home. Therefore their experiences had been reported to other people and also recorded in trustworthy historical books.
Formerly nobody would show any interest in this subject, but recently it is obtaining its credibility in the fields of historical literature and archaeology. In this paper I will elaborate upon it.

2. We can find revealing sentence in Worenzhuan*1) 倭人伝 ( a part of Sanguozhi 三国志).
They are as follows:
"And there are Luoguo 裸国 (a country where naked people live) and Heichiguo 黒歯国 (a country where people with black teeth live). They are in the southeast of Japan. It takes one year by boat to reach them."

The descriptions mentioned above mean that;

(l) These two countries Louguo 裸国 and Heichiguo 黒歯国 existed in the third century.
(2) They were located*2) in the southeast of Woguo 倭国 (the northern part of Kyushu).
(3) It took one year by boat to reach them. (According to the Woguo Calender*3), this equals half a year in relation to the present one).

This news was brought by Woren 倭人 (a big group of ancient Japanese). A Chinese Chenshou 陳寿 , a chronicler official of the Xijin dynasty*4) 西晋 wrote this news down in Sanguozhi 三国志 , official historical books on the dynasty. I surmised these descriptions are real, and these countries were located in the northwest coast of South America ; Ecuador and Peru. I stated this view in my book*5) twenty years ago.

3. Concerning the subject mentioned above we can find other important sentences in Sanguozhi 三国志. They are as follows;

"We (Chinese armies) proceeded into Susen 粛慎 areas and on the east reached Dahai 大海 (northwest of the Japan Sea, perhaps extending to the Pacific Ocean). The elders said that the strange-faced People lived in a country near where the Sun rose."
In my book I supposed that (the strange-faced People) were Woren 倭人. For Woguo 倭国 was situated in the east of China. But it was my error. Because in this context, "the elders" indicate the elders of Sushen 粛慎 (Vladiostok), Woguo 倭国 (its heart was in northern Kyushu) and did not lie in the east of it.
(On this point Mr. Kamata Takeshi 鎌田武志 pointed out my error at the Shirakaba Symposium).

Furthermore, Woguo 倭国 lay in the far west of Louguo 裸国 and Heichiguo 黒歯国 and took one year by boat. So Woguo 倭国 could not be called "near where the Sun rises." From this viewpoint my old understanding was obviously incorrect.

This being the case, who were "the strange-faced people? " The answer is now clearer to me. That is, it took one year by boat to get to the land where men lived and made countries, southeast of where Woren 倭人 lived. The names of their countries were also noted. They were the farthest lands that people mentioned in Sanguozhi 三国志, and the other ancient Chinese history books did not white about it in Shiji 史記 and Hanshu 漢書. Consequently, Louguo 裸国 and Heichiguo 黒歯国 also belonged to a part of the great land where "the strange-faced people*6)" lived. They were ancient Native American who lived in the New Continent. The elders of Sushen 粛慎 called them "the strange -faced people. " This is my new theory.

5. In this theory we should learn how people recognized these countries. The elders of Sushen 粛慎, did not say "From which direction dose the Sun rise?" as perceived from only one place (for example Vladiostok) they lived. They talked about it using only the common sense of Sushen 粛慎. It was regarded as the great area of ancient culture which spreads over the northeast area of the Present Russian Republic. The large ice fields spread over from the Behring Strait to Alaska. Therefore it was called the New Continent based on their common sense.
To say the least, the people who lived near the north border of the New Continent could keep in touch with their environment. We can easily imagine that they went hunting beasts on ice fields, slide over the snow in sledgs and entered Alaska through the frozen Behring Strait in winter. If anyone insists that " They had no knowledge of Alaska". I assure you that he is selfrighteous.

Besides, there is the Sea. In the southern part of the Behring Strait flows the North Pacific Current. It is the extension of the Kuroshio 黒潮. It goes southward, becomes the California Current, and reaches the distant part of the sea that it still visible from the northwest shore of South America (Ecuador and Peru). There it collides with the Humbold Current coming from the north, that is the largest cold current on earth. This makes for the greatest fishing ground.
(The mixed currents go westward to Tahiti island. )
I cannot believe that the fishermen of Sushen 粛慎 did not know about the existence of the great fishing ground in the south sea. Because they could have the inshore fishing from the southern area of the Behring Strait to the greatest fishing ground. We cannot deny that the people of Sushen 粛慎 knew about this. On every occasion, the elders of Sushen 粛慎 stated that the New Continent and the existence of "the strange-faced people", were ancient Native Americans. They stated this fact to the Chinese.
On the other hand, Woren 倭人 also knew about the existence of the continent and two countries. They mentioned this fact to the Chinese.
Subsequently, the Chinese became aware of the existence of the New Continent, by the elders of Sushen 粛慎 and Woren 倭人. Therefore they recorded two sure news in their historical books 三国志.

6. Hanshu 漢書, the famous Chinese historical books were written in the first century before Sanguozhi 三国志. In it we can find the first sentences : "There is a country called anxi 安息 in the west of Xiyu 西域 (the West Area). The elders of this country are said to have heard that " There is a country called Tiaozhi 條支 which takes more hundred days by foot from our country. Furthermore in the west,the place where the Sun sets takes a hundred days by boat."
Probably Anxi 安息 is called Persia (ancient Iran). Tiaozhi 條支 is called Turk or Arabia (or northwest Africa). It cannot be disputed that only the sea exists west of Tiapzhi 條支 . The area where the Sun sets is far away from this country, because, as you may recall, the place where the Sun sets takes more than a hundred days by boat to get there. Therefore we cannot but regard the area*7) where the Sun sets as the New Continent or, at least, the east area of the New Continent.

In China, formerly they had believed that the Sun set in Kunlunshan 昆[倫 人hennnasi]山. In the first century B.C., Wudi 武帝, the emperor of the Han 漢 dynasty, sent Zhahggian 張騫 to Xiyu 西域 (the West Area). He believed that the old dished view of Kunlunshan 昆倫[人hennnasi]山 was incorrect.
In Shiji 史記, the most famous historical books in China. Simagian 司馬遷, the author, wrote about the emperor's contention proudly. Han 漢, the new dynasty dispelled the ideas held concerning the Xia 夏, Shang 商, and Zhou 周 dynasties with their own traditional beliefs.

This is the same method they used to maintain the belief that the Sun rose in the east island where Woren 倭人 lived.

But the Wei 魏 dynasty sent its army to the border of Sushen 粛慎 to fight against Gaogouli 高句麗, and its envoy to Woguo 倭国 (ancient Japan). A commander (Zhangzheng 張政) was also sent to help Beimihu 卑弥呼, the queen of Waguo 倭国 and was made to remain with them for twenty years. Subsequently, they were taught by Woguo 倭人 (a big group of ancient Japanese). In the southeast, far from Woguo 倭国, the land where the Sun shone and men lived actually existed.
Consequently the Wei and Xijin 西晋 new dynasties could correct "their mistaken notion" of the Xia 夏, Shang 商, Zhou Shu 周 , Gin 秦, and Han 漢 dynasties.
This is how the "Discovery of the New Continent" was written in the Chinese historical books Sanguozhi 三国志 in the third century.

7. The former theory concerning the ancient voyage on the open sea far from land has been changed completely during the last several years in Japan. These changes are as follows:

(1) It has been confirmed that exchanges between the Japanese Islands and China (the area of Jiangnan 江南) took place in about 5500 B.C., (A large quantity of Shijue 石[快 心hen no kawari王]) were excavated at the ruins of Hemudu 河姆渡 near Guijishan 会稽山. They belonged to the same ancient civilization as Ketsujyo-mimikazari 石[快 心hen no kawari王] 状耳飾り in the Japanese Islands).
(2) It has been proved that exchanges between Vladiostok and the Japanese Islands (Shimanekens 島根県 and Hokkaido 北海道 and Aomoriken 青森県 ) occurred between about 2000.B. C. - lOOO B.C. (Products of obsidian that were excavated from the ruins within 100 kilometers around Vladiostok, were brought from Okinoshima 隠岐島 in Shimaneken 島根県 << about 50% of them>> and Akaigawa 赤井川 in Hokkaido 北海道 << about 40% of them>>. This was verified by an inspection of optical science).
In reference to this point, I had already announced the result of the investigation mentioned above at the symposium in lzumo (Shimaneken 島根県) through the analysis of the Kunibiki 国引き myth. My theory was confirmed.

(3) Then, during the same period, it has been proved that exchanges between Tsushima 対馬 (the island between Korea 韓国 and Kyushu 九州) and Hokkaido 北海道 or Aomoriken 青森県. (The shell ornaments and primitive harpoons unearthed from the ruins of Saka 佐賀 on Minecho 峰町 in Tsushima 対馬 were clearly special products of the northern area around Hokkaido 北海道.
(4) It has been confirmed that exchanges between Hokkaido 北海道 and Nagasaki 長崎 and Okinawa 沖縄 island occurred in the first and fifth century. (The proof of this are the ornaments of the Gohora ゴボーラ shell which have been excavated from the ruins of Usu 有珠 in Hokkaido 北海道. This shell is a special product of the southern area in Okinawa 沖縄 and other locations further south. In addition, Nagasaki ken 長崎県 is regarded as the place of production of these ornaments).

As a result, traces of an ancient people who used to set out on the ocean by ship, appeared one after another. They often set out across the ocean currents.
In both cases of (1) and (2) mentioned above, they crossed a part of the Kuroshio 黒潮 ocean current. That is, their crossing was not simply accidental drifts but intentional crossing. According to recent reports on ancient voyages, it is common sense to think that:

"They could set out across a part of the Kuroshio 黒潮 ocean current. Why could' t they reach the west coast of Ecuador and Peru? They could reach them because of the strong Kuroshio 黒潮 main ocean current."

Formerly many scholars had denied and sometimes decried the reality of the descriptions of Louguo 裸国 and Heichiguo 黒歯国 (in Worenzhuan 倭人伝). They had judged them to be extreme and irrational, out of the bounds of possibility. But recently, various facts in the fields of historical literature and archaeology have been uncovered. Because of this, men can hardly maintain the old customs of denial which they had clung to in the past without, of course, being labeled peculiar bigots.

8. Following are summaries of the above evident:

(1) The description of Louguo 裸国 and Heichiguo 黒歯国 is real. They help to explain how the countries in the northwestern part of South America were before the third century.
(2) It has been established that "the strange-faced people" written in the preface of Sanguozhi 三国志 (Dongyizhuan 東夷伝 showed people, in the New Continent, ancient Native American.
(3) The Chinese heard the news, once from Woren 倭人, and another time from the elders of Sushen 粛慎, in the northeastern area of the Russia Republic, including the Yanhaizou 沿海州. Both pieces of news did not originate from the same source. However, both confirmed the fact that the place where "the strange-faced people" lived was in the east. The Chinese understood this and recorded the information in Sanguozhi 三国志.
(4) It has been proved by the last several discoveries of archaeology that several thousand years ago ancient people had already set out for voyages across the ocean intentionally. Therefore we can hardly doubt the validity of the description in Sanguozhi 三国志. Judging by these facts mentioned, it can be asserted with certainty that there were exchanges between the continents in the Pre-Columbus period. The glorious memory of scholars has revealed this to the world.

Of course, the meaning of the brave act by Columbus on human history cannot be neglected. However,at the same time, we can hardly dismiss the meaning of real human exchanges in the Pre-Columbus period.

9. Twenty years ago I regarded the voyages of Worren 倭人 over the Pacific Ocean as a real historical fact. Many scholars laughed at and ignored my theory, however, only two scholars did not. They were Mr. Clifford Evans and Mrs. Meggers Betty J. in the Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Washington D.C. They had profound knowledge through their research and investigation with Emilio Estraba (Ecuador) for many years. They gave me erudite support on my hypothesis which was based on records.

Mr. Evans has died. However, study lives forever. He followed the road of truth as real cultured adventure. In the near future their discovery will become evident to everyone. I will dedicate this essay to them before that day comes. I feel happy and honored to do this. It is with sincere gratitude that I applaud all scholars before me for opening the door to a wider and deeper appreciation of cultural and historical truth.


*1) Worenzhuan
Chinese authorized history books (edited by Chenshou of Xijin 陳寿 of Xijin 西晋 in the third century). They have two prefaces: one is appended to Wuwan ・ Xianbeizhuan 烏丸・鮮卑伝, the other Dongyizhuan 東夷伝 Worenzhuan 倭人伝 is included at the end of Weizhi 魏志.

*2) located To be more precise 侏儒国 lies in the southeast of Woguo 倭国. Louguo 裸国 and Heichiguo 黒歯国 are in the southeast of 侏儒国.

*3) Woguo Calendar
It is the ancient calendar which regards one year in the present calendar as two years.

*4) Xijin dynasty
Chinese dynasty in the third century (265-316).

*5) my book
"There was no 'Jamataikoku 邪馬台国' 1971".

*6) the strange-faced people
The phrase American Indian is improper as it is generally known today.

*7) the area
Concerning of the voyage of Columbus, it took about 70 days to reach the New Continent, according to The Journal of "Christopher Columbus. "
(Mr. Harada Minoru taught me this correspondence.)

We want several opinions about the New Report on the "Discovery" of the New Continent in the Pre-Columbus Period, please send E-mail to Yukio Yokota. E-mail sinkodai@furutasigaku.jp

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